René Laennec(17 February 1781 – 13 August 1826) was a French physician.He was was born in Quimper (Brittany). His mother died of tuberculosis when he was five or six years, and he went to live with his great-uncle.Laennec studied medicine in Paris under several famous physicians, including Dupuytren and Jean-Nicolas Corvisart-Desmarets. There he was trained to use sound as a diagnostic aid. Corvisart advocated the re-introduction of percussion during the French Revolution.
He invented the stethoscope in 1816, while working at the Hôpital Necker and pioneered its use in diagnosing various chest conditions.Laennec had discovered that the new stethoscope was superior to the normally used method of placing the ear over the chest, particularly if the patient was overweight.
Laennec was not only known for his contributions in medical science but also for his charity works. He was very sympathetic towards the economically deprived class of people.
He died at a young age of 45, he was able to create a niche for himself in the field of medicine.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (February 8, 1834-February 2, 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.He formulated the Periodic Law, created a farsighted version of the periodic table of elements, and used it to correct the properties of some already discovered elements and also to predict the properties of eight elements yet to be discovered.In 1863 there were 56 known elements with a new element being discovered at a rate of approximately one per year. Other scientists had previously identified periodicity of elements.
Mendeleev published his periodic table of all known elements and predicted several new elements to complete the table. For his predicted eight elements, he used the prefixes of eka, dvi, and tri (Sanskrit one, two, three) in their naming. Mendeleev questioned some of the currently accepted atomic weights (they could be measured only with a relatively low accuracy at that time), pointing out that they did not correspond to those suggested by his Periodic Law.The original draft made by Mendeleev would be found years later and published under the name Tentative System of Elements.Russian Academy of Sciences yearly awards since 1998 Mendeleev Golden Medal.
Wilbur Lincoln Scoville (January 22, 1865 – March 10, 1942)was an American pharmacist best known for his creation of the “Scoville Organoleptic Test”, now standardized as the Scoville scale. He devised the test and scale in 1912 while working at the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company to measure piquancy, or “spiciness”, of various chili
peppers.Scoville wrote The Art of Compounding, which was first published in 1895 and has gone through at least 8 editions. The book was used as a pharmacological reference.For a time he was a professor at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. In 1912, he devised the test and scale known as the “Scoville Organoleptic Test” while working at the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company. It measured piquancy, or “spiciness”, of various Chili peppers. It is now standardized as the Scoville scale.
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western art music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers.He was an innovator, widening the scope of sonata, symphony, concerto and quartet, and combining vocals and instruments in a new way. His personal life was marked by a struggle against deafness, and some of his most important works were composed during the last 10 years of his life, when he was quite unable to hear.
Beethoven’s compositional career is usually divided into early, middle, and late periods. In this scheme, his early period is taken to last until about 1802, the middle period from about 1803 to about 1814, and the late period from about 1815.
In his early period, Beethoven’s work was strongly influenced by his predecessors Haydn and Mozart. He also explored new directions and gradually expanded the scope and ambition of his work. Some important pieces from the early period are the first and second symphonies, the set of six string quartets Opus 18, the first two piano concertos, and the first dozen or so piano sonatas, including the famous Pathétique sonata, Op. 13.
His middle (heroic) period began shortly after Beethoven’s personal crisis brought on by his recognition of encroaching deafness. It includes large-scale works that express heroism and struggle. Middle-period works include six symphonies (Nos. 3–8), the last three piano concertos, the Triple Concerto and violin concerto, five string quartets (Nos. 7–11), several piano sonatas (including the Moonlight, Waldstein and Appassionata sonatas), the Kreutzer violin sonata and Beethoven’s only opera, Fidelio.
Beethoven’s late period began around 1815. Works from this period are characterised by their intellectual depth, their formal innovations, and their intense, highly personal expression. The String Quartet, Op. 131 has seven linked movements, and the Ninth Symphony adds choral forces to the orchestra in the last movement. Other compositions from this period include the Missa Solemnis, the last five string quartets (including the massive Große Fuge) and the last five piano sonatas.
Verghese Kurien was an Indian social entrepreneur who is known as the Father of White Revolution in India.He was the architect of Operation Flood – the largest dairy development program in the world.For this he was renowned as Father of White Revolution.A Padma Vibhushan awardee, Verghese Kurien was the master brain behind making India the largest milk producer in the world. He was also the recipient of the World Food Prize and the Magsaysay Award.
He was born in Calicut, Kerala on 26 November 1921. He graduated from Loyola college of Madras and did his BE from university of Madras. Then he went to US on a government scholarship to earn his Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Michigan university.Verghese Kurien died on 9 September 2012 after a brief spell of illness in Nadiad, near Anand at the age of 90.
He founded major institutes such as Anand Milk Federation Union Limited, National Dairy Development Board and Institute of Rural Management Anand.He helped modernise the Anand model of cooperative dairy development. He is regarded as one of the greatest proponents of the cooperative movement in the world.His work having lifted millions out of poverty in India and outside.